References

  1. Bessereau J, Genotelle N, Chabbaut C, Huon A, Tabah A, Aboab J, et al. Long-term outcome of iatrogenic gas embolism. Intensive Care Medicine. 2010;36(7):1180-7. 
  2. Ploner F, Saltuari L, Marosi MJ, Dolif R, Salsa A. Cerebral air emboli with use of central venous catheter in mobile patient. Lancet. 1991;338:1331. 
  3. Schlimp CJ, Loimer T, Rieger M, Lederer W, Schmidts MB. The Potential of Venous Air Embolism Ascending Retrograde to the Brain. Journal of forensic sciences. 2005;50(4):906-9. 
  4. Blanc P, Boussuges A, Henriette K, Sainty J, Deleflie M. Iatrogenic cerebral air embolism: importance of an early hyperbaric oxygenation. Intensive Care Medicine. 2002;28:559-63. 
  5. Walker MB. Iatrogenic arterial gas embolism in Australia - a demographic perspective. Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine. 2006;36(3):158 
  6. Trytko BE, Bennett MH. Arterial gas embolism: a review of cases at Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, 1996 to 2006. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 2008;36:60-4. 
  7. Fracasso T, Karger B, Schmidt PF, Reinbold WD, Pfeiffer H. Retrograde Venous Cerebral Air Embolism from Disconnected Central Venous Catheter: An Experimental Model. Journal of Forensic Science. 2011;56(S1):S101-S4. 
  8. Bothma PA, Brodbeck A, Smith B. Cerebral Venous Air Embolism Treated with Hyperbaric Oxygen: A Case report. Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine. 2012 June; 42(2):101-103. 
  9. Souday V, Radermacher P, Asfar P. Cerebral arterial gas embolism-a race against time! Crit Care Med. 2013 Jul;41(7):1817-9. PubMed PMID: 23774349. 
  10. Buompadre MC, Arroyo HA. Accidental cerebral venous gas embolism in a young patient with congenital heart disease. J Child Neurol. 2008;23:121-123.
  11. Bothma PA, Heij REA. Despite animal studies, HBOT is the treatment of choice for cerebral gas embolism. Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine. December 2013;44(4)
  12. P. A. Bothma and C. J. Schlimp.  Retrograde cerebral venous gas embolism: are we missing too many cases?  Br. J. Anaesth. (2014) 112 (3): 401-404 doi:10.1093/bja/aet433 Beevor, H. and G. Frawley (2016). "Iatrogenic cerebral gas embolism: analysis of the presentation, management and outcomes of patients referred to The Alfred Hospital Hyperbaric Unit." Diving Hyperb Med 46(1): 15-21.
  13. Beevor, H. and G. Frawley (2016). "Iatrogenic cerebral gas embolism: analysis of the presentation, management and outcomes of patients referred to The Alfred Hospital Hyperbaric Unit." Diving Hyperb Med 46(1): 15-21.

Laboratory Research:


Gorman, D., et al. (1987). "Redistribution of cerebral arterial gas emboli: A comparison of treatment regimens." 9th International Symposium on Underwater and Hyperbaric Physiology Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Sociaety, Bethesda, MD: 1031-1050.              

Helps, S. C. and D. F. Gorman (1991). "Air embolism of the brain in rabbits pretreated with mechlorethamine." Stroke 22(3): 351-354.

Helps, S., et al. (1990). "The effect of gas emboli on rabbit cerebral blood flow." Stroke 21(1): 94-99.

              

Helps, S., et al. (1990). "Increasing doses of intracarotid air and cerebral blood flow in rabbits." Stroke 21(9): 1340-1345.

              

Weenink, R. P., et al. (2012). "Animal models of cerebral arterial gas embolism." J Neurosci Methods 205(2): 233-245. 

Weenink, R. P., et al. (2013). "Hyperbaric oxygen does not improve cerebral function when started 2 or 4 hours after cerebral arterial gas embolism in swine." Crit Care Med 41(7): 1719-1727. (KEEP IN MIND THAT THIS IS A VERY SEVERE INJURY TO THE BRAIN)

              

 

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